+86-21-58386256

Bromocarbons in the tropical ocean atmosphere during the ...

Bromocarbons in the tropical coastal and open ocean atmosphere during the Prime Expedition Scientific Cruise 2009 (PESC 09) M. S. Mohd Nadzir1,3,4,9, ... high turbidity, meaning that satellite chl a may not always be a good proxy for marine productivity. 1 Introduction

Bromocarbons in the tropical coastal and open ocean ...

Atmospheric concentrations of very short-lived species (VSLS) bromocarbons, including CHBr 3, CH 2 Br 2, CHCl 2 Br, CHClBr 2, and CH 2 BrCl, were measured in the Strait of Malacca and the South China and Sulu-Sulawesi seas during a two-month research cruise in June-July 2009. The highest bromocarbon concentrations were found in the Strait of Malacca, with smaller enhancements in coastal ...

Impact of biogenic very short-lived bromine on the ...

Feb 03, 2017· Abstract. Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons (VSL Br) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion.Based on a dual set of 1960–2100 coupled chemistry–climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSL Br), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSL Br are …

Emission of short-lived halocarbons by three common ...

Aug 23, 2017· Very short-lived halocarbons of marine biogenic origin play an important role in affecting tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. In recent years, more attention has been paid to tropical regions where the influence of strong convective forces is responsible for rapid uplifting of the volatile organohalogens from the open surface waters into the atmosphere.

ACP - Metrics - Bromocarbons in the tropical coastal and ...

Feb 19, 2021· Research article 14 Aug 2014. Research article | 14 Aug 2014 . Bromocarbons in the tropical coastal and open ocean atmosphere during the 2009 Prime Expedition Scientific Cruise (P

Intercomparison Between Surrogate, Explicit, and Full ...

Dec 28, 2020· Tropical annual mean vertical distribution of (a) very-short lived bromocarbons (VSL Br, filled circles) and (b) inorganic bromine (Br y, empty circles) for the different CAM-Chem schemes. Shaded areas represent the model spatial and temporal variability within the Tropics (20°N–20°S).

ACP - Bromocarbons in the tropical marine boundary layer ...

Bromocarbons in the tropical marine boundary layer at the Cape Verde Observatory – measurements and modelling ... Methyl iodide does not correlate with these bromocarbons, with base levels of around 1–2 ppt and some periods of much higher mixing ratios. Using published bromocarbon emission rates, our chemical transport model studies ...

Bromocarbons in the tropical marine boundary layer at the ...

Feb 01, 2009· A new gas chromatograph was used to make measurements of halocarbons at the Cape Verde observatory during late May and early June 2007. The instrument demonstrated its potential for long-term autonomous measurements. Bromoform (CHBr 3 ) exhibits the most variability of all the halocarbons observed, ranging from a background concentration of about 4 ppt to a maximum of …

Auxiliary Material for Salawitch et al., A New ...

Auxiliary Material for Salawitch et al., Total Column BrO During Arctic Spring 2 developed to retrieve profiles of tropospheric O3 from OMI radiances [Liu et al., 2010].Correlation coefficients between elements of the state vector for BrO and O3 were found, for a variety of fitting windows.

Phytoplankton as a temperate marine source of brominated ...

Spatial distributions of bromocarbons, including bromoform (CHBr 3), dibromochloromethane (CHBr 2 Cl), and dibromomethane (CH 2 Br 2), and influential oceanographic parameters that determine their concentrations were measured in the marine atmosphere and seawater of the East China Sea (ECS) and western Pacific Ocean during two cruises from 14 to 24 September, 2017 and from 5 October to 3 ...

Seasonal variation of bromocarbons at Hateruma Island ...

Apr 13, 2016· 10%· Seasonal variation and source apportionment of CH 2 Br 2 and CHBr 3 observed at Hateruma Island. The CH 2 Br 2 and CHBr 3 concentration datasets measured at Hateruma Island from December 2007 to November 2008 are shown by season in Figs. 1 and 2, respectively.For comparison, HCFC-22 concentration data are also included in Fig. 1, because this compound is an anthropogenic fluorocarbon …

Bromocarbons in the Tropical Coastal and Open Ocean ...

Bromocarbons in the Tropical Coastal and Open Ocean Atmosphere During the 2009 Prime Expedition Scientific Cruise (PESC-09) ... correlation between bromocarbons and in situ chlorophyll-a but positive correlations with both ... for marine productivity.

Global modeling of biogenic bromocarbons

tropical ocean regions. 4. Simulations of the Global Atmospheric Bromoform Budget 4.1. Bromoform Emission Scenarios [12] The oceans are a major source of biogenic halocar-bons which are biosynthesized in marine plants and other marine life [Gribble, 2003]. Spatial and temporal variations in the oceanic distribution of these organisms and the gas-

Bromine and iodine chemistry in a global chemistry-climate ...

Ocean emissions of five VSL bromocarbons (CHBr 3, CH2Br 2, CH 2 BrCl, CHBrCl 2, CHBr 2 Cl) and three VSL iodocarbons (CH 2 ICl, CH 2 IBr, CH2I 2) have been parameterised by a biogenic chlorophyll-α (chl-α) dependent source in the tropical oceans (20 °N-20° S). Constant oceanic fluxes with 2.5 coast-to-ocean emission ratios are separately ...

Crystals | Free Full-Text | Tetrabromoethane as σ-Hole ...

The complexes trans-[PtBr2(NCNR2)2] (R2 = Me21, (CH2)52) were cocrystallized with 1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane (tbe) in CH2Cl2 forming solvates 1·tbe and 2·tbe, respectively. In both solvates, tbe involved halogen bonding, viz. the C–Br···Br–Pt interactions, were detected by single-crystal X-ray diffractions experiments. Appropriate density functional theory calculations (M06/def2-TZVP ...

Bromocarbons in the tropical coastal and open ocean ...

Atmospheric concentrations of very short-lived species (VSLS) bromocarbons, including CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHCl2Br, CHClBr2, and CH2BrCl, were measured in the Strait of Malacca and the South China and Sulu-Sulawesi seas during a two-month research cruise in June-July 2009. The highest bromocarbon concentrations were found in the Strait of Malacca, with smaller enhancements in coastal regions of ...

Bromocarbons in the tropical marine boundary layer at the ...

Bromocarbons in the tropical marine boundary layer at the Cape Verde Observatory – measurements and modelling . By J. A. Pyle, X. Yang, N ... of Yokouchi et al. (2005) to improve the model to measurement comparison. Even when the model reproduces the observed bromocarbons, modelled BrO is much less than recent tropical observations (Read et ...

Bromocarbons in the tropical marine boundary layer at the ...

9084 L. M. O'Brien et al.: Bromocarbons in the tropical marine boundary layer In contrast to the stratosphere, our understanding of the role of halogens in the global troposphere is still evolv-ing rapidly. It has been clear for some years that bromi-nated compounds are responsible for sporadic, rapid ozone

Effect of irradiance on the emission of short-lived ...

Apr 19, 2019· Bromocarbons in the tropical coastal and open ocean atmosphere during the Prime Expedition Scientific Cruise 2009 (PESC 09) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2014; 14 (15):8137–8148. doi: 10.5194/acp-14-8137-2014.

Bromocarbons in the tropical coastal and open ocean ...

8138 M. S. Mohd Nadzir et al.: Bromocarbons in the tropical ocean atmosphere during PESC 09 make a crude estimate of the regional emissions of CHBr3 and to derive a value of 32Ggyr−1 for the Southeast (SE) Asian region (10 N–20 S, 90–150 E). Finally, we note that

[PDF] Emission of short-lived halocarbons by three common ...

Very short-lived halocarbons of marine biogenic origin play an important role in affecting tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. In recent years, more attention has been paid to tropical regions where the influence of strong convective forces is responsible for rapid uplifting of the volatile organohalogens from the open surface waters into the atmosphere.

Bromocarbons in the tropical coastal and open ocean ...

Atmospheric concentrations of very short-lived species (VSLS) bromocarbons, including CHBr 3, CH 2 Br 2, CHCl 2 Br, CHClBr 2, CH 2 BrCl, were measured in the Strait of Malacca and the South China and Sulu-Sulawesi Seas during a two month research cruise in June/July 2009. The highest bromocarbon concentrations were found in the Strait of Malacca, with smaller enhancements in coastal regions ...

Informes: "Marine observatory" – Grafiati

Local emission magnitudes and CHBr3:CH2Br2 ratios must be increased more in line with the recent observations of Yokouchi et al. (2005) to improve the model to measurement comparison. Even when the model reproduces the observed bromocarbons, modelled BrO is much less than recent tropical observations (Read et al., 2008).

Convective transport of very-short-lived bromocarbons to ...

bromocarbons to the stratosphere Q. Liang1,2, E. Atlas3, D. Blake4, ... VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and offthe Pacific coast of Mexico. ...

(PDF) Novel approaches to improve estimates of short-lived ...

At Phytoplankton and macroalgae in the ocean are the low latitudes, large-scale convection at the intertropical con- main sources to the atmosphere of several very short- vergence zone carries bromocarbons and other halogenated lived bromocarbons, including bromoform (CHBr3 ), dibro- VOCs into the free troposphere and lower stratosphere (e.g ...

Tropics - Wikipedia

"Tropical" is sometimes used in a general sense for a tropical climate to mean warm to hot and moist year-round, often with the sense of lush vegetation.. Many tropical areas have a dry and wet season. The wet season, rainy season or green season is the time of year, ranging from one or more months, when most of the average annual rainfall in a region falls.

Bromoform, dibromochloromethane, and dibromomethane over ...

Oct 01, 2020· Spatial distributions of bromocarbons, including bromoform (CHBr 3), dibromochloromethane (CHBr 2 Cl), and dibromomethane (CH 2 Br 2), and influential oceanographic parameters that determine their concentrations were measured in the marine atmosphere and seawater of the East China Sea (ECS) and western Pacific Ocean during two cruises from 14 to 24 September, …

Bromocarbons in the tropical marine boundary layer at the ...

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics () . Bromocarbons in the tropical marine boundary layer at the Cape Verde Observatory – measurements and modelling

Sailing Schedule - Tropical

"We can handle virtually any shipment to and from The Bahamas and the caribbean."

TMC

Ultra Marine Magazine Reef Habitat 50 review. Jul . 06 / 2021. Read more. Felix Sproll, former TMC family member, wins the first edition of the World Landscape Photographer. The Grayling are back! Very rare spiny seahorse spotted off UK coast! Reef Builders: TMC's V2 iLumenAir gets a …

Global modeling of biogenic bromocarbons - Warwick - 2006 ...

Dec 21, 2006· [31] The short-lived oceanic bromocarbons contribute a maximum of 6–7 pptv inorganic bromine, peaking over the equator at ∼100 hPa, near to the top of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). This value is comparable to the inorganic bromine produced in the model from the photochemical destruction of the longer-lived methyl bromide at this ...

ACP - Metrics - Bromocarbons in the tropical marine ...

Bromocarbons in the tropical marine boundary layer at the Cape Verde Observatory – measurements and modelling . L. M. O'Brien et al. Viewed. Show all Final …

Biogenic bromine | Nature

Jan 18, 2006· Other modelling work 2,3 has reported similar reductions in ozone and nitrogen oxides by oceanic bromocarbons. ... One source is known to be marine algae in coastal regions 11. ... tropical …

Bromocarbons in the tropical coastal and open ocean ...

Atmospheric concentrations of very short-lived species (VSLS) bromocarbons, including CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHCl2Br, CHClBr2, and CH2BrCl, were measured in the Strait of Malacca and the South China and Sulu–Sulawesi seas during a two-month research cruise in June–July 2009. The highest bromocarbon concentrations were found in the Strait of Malacca, with smaller enhancements in …

Modelling future changes to the stratospheric source gas ...

The importance of active bromine radicals (Br x = Br + BrO) in the catalytic destruction of ozone (O 3 ) is fairly well established. In recent years it has become clear that biogenic gases such as bromoform (CHBr 3 ) and dibromomethane (CH 2 Br 2 ) are a significant source of bromine (Br) in the tropical marine …

ACP - Relations - Bromocarbons in the tropical marine ...

30 Nov 2009. 30 Nov 2009 . Bromocarbons in the tropical marine boundary layer at the Cape Verde Observatory – measurements and modelling . L. M. O'Brien et al. No related articl

CONTRAST - University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

marine organisms NASA Global Hawk 14 - 19 km Warm tropical ocean waters enhance production of short-lived organic bromine and iodine compounds by marine organisms. These halocarbons (halogen containing organic compounds) are then released into the atmosphere. BrO and ClO react, leading to stratospheric ozone (O 3) depletion Tropopause Air ascending